Is the atom still the same element? Only sometimes. If there is a change in the number of protons, the atom becomes a different element with different chemical properties. If there is a change in the number of neutrons, the atom is the same element, but becomes a different isotope of that element. All isotopes of one element have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. All isotopes of a certain element also have the same chemical properties but have varying radiological properties such as half-life, or type of radiation emitted.
What if the protons and electrons of an atom are unbalanced? Normally, the number of electrons and protons is the same, so the atom is balanced electrically. Sometimes electrons are added or removed, and the atom carries a negative or positive charge. These charged forms of an element are called 'ions' of the element. This change affects the way the atom reacts chemically, but does not affect the stability of the nucleus--the atom's radioactivity.