(L. magnes, magnet, from magnetic properties of pyrolusite; It. manganese, corrupt formof magnesia)
Recognized by Scheele, Bergman, and others as an element and isolated by Gahn in 1774by reduction of the dioxide with carbon.
Manganese minerals are widely distributed; oxides, silicates, and carbonates are themost common. The discovery of large quantities of manganese nodules on the floor of theoceans may become a source of manganese. These nodules contain about 24% manganesetogether with many other elements in lesser abundance.
Most manganese today is obtained from ores found in Russia, Brazil, Australia, Republicof S. Africa, Gabon, and India. Pyrolusite and rhodochrosite are among the most commonmanganese minerals. The metal is obtained by reduction of the oxide with sodium, magnesium,aluminum, or by elctrolysis.
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'There is no inductive method which could lead to the fundamental concepts of physics. Failure to understand this fact constituted the basic philosophical error of so many investigators of the nineteenth century.'