PhysLink.com Logo
Black Friday Sale 2017 - Educational Gifts and Toys
Black Friday Sale 2017 - Educational Gifts and Toys

Tm - Thulium

Thulium

 Thulium 
Tm
Atomic Number: 69
Atomic Weight: 168.9342
Element Type: Rare Earth Metal
Crystal Structure: Hexagonal
Melting Point: 1545.0°C = 2813.0°F = 1818.15 K
Boiling Point: 1950.0°C = 3542.0°F = 2223.15 K
Critical Temp: °C = °F = K
Atomic Radius: 2.42 Å (Å = Angstrom = 10-10 m)
Covalent Radius: 1.56 Å
Electronegativity: 1.25

History

(Thule, the earliest name for Scandinavia) Discovered in 1879 by Cleve. Thulium occursin small quantities along with other rare earths in a number of minerals. It is obtainedcommercially from monazite, which contains about 0.007% of the element. Thulium is theleast abundant of the rare earth elements, but with new sources recently discovered, it isnow considered to be about as rare as silver, gold, or cadmium. Ion-exchange and solventextraction techniques have recently permitted much easier separation of the rare earths,with much lower costs. Only a few years ago, thulium metal was not obtainable at any cost;in 1985 the oxide sold for $3400/kg. Thulium metal costs $50/g. Thulium can be isolated byreduction of the oxide with lanthanum metal or by calcium reduction of a closed container.The element is silver-gray, soft, malleable, and ductile, and can be cut with a knife.Twenty five isotopes are known, with atomic masses ranging from 152 to 176. Naturalthulium, which is 100% 169Tm, is stable. Because of the relatively high price of themetal, thulium has not yet found many practical applications. 169Tm bombarded in a nuclearreactor can be used as a radiation source in portable X-ray equipment. 171Tm ispotentially useful as an energy source. Natural thulium also has possible use in ferrites(ceramic magnetic materials) used in microwave equipment. As with other lanthanides,thulium has a low-to-moderate acute toxic rating. It should be handled with care.


Sources


Science Quote

'The most precious things in life are not those one gets for money.'

Albert Einstein
(1879-1955)


All rights reserved. © Copyright '1995-'2017 PhysLink.com