Why is the latent heat of vaporization of water greater than the latent heat of fusion of water?
Asked by: Fidel
The latent heat of fusion and vaporization both involve the heat required to change
the state of a substance without a change in temperature. In the case of the latent
heat of fusion it is the heat required to change a substance from a solid (ice) to a
liquid (water) or vice versa while the latent heat of vaporization from a liquid
(water) to a gas (steam) or vice versa.
In solids, the molecules are very close together and the attraction between the
molecules are great. This causes a substance to have a structure in which the
molecules have little freedom to move, as you would see in the case of ice. In the
case of a liquid, the molecules are closely spaced, though not as closely spaced as a
solid, they have more freedom to move and the intermolecular forces are weaker that
that of a solid. Thus a liquid can flow, unlike a solid. Now in a gas, the molecules
are sufficiently far apart that there are little to no attractive forces. Because of
this a gas can easily be compressed and take the shape of the container.
Now as you heat a solid turning it into a liquid, you increase the kinetic energy of
its molecules, moving them further apart until the forces of attraction are reduced
to allow it to flow freely. Keep in mind the forces of attraction still exists. Now
as you heat a liquid, turning it into a gas, the kinetic energy of the molecules are
increased to a point where there are no forces of attraction between the molecules.
The energy required to completely separate the molecules, moving from liquid to gas,
is much greater that if you were just to reduce their separation, solid to liquid.
Hence the reason why the latent heat of vaporization is greater that the latent heat
Answered by: David Latchman, B.Ss. Physics, University of the West Indies
The above answer is essentially correct, however the folowing should be further clarified:
The difference in enthalpies comes from the fact that a liquid molecule is stabilized by interactions with other nearby molecules (therefore a small heat of fusion) and a gas has very little intermolecular stabilization (hence a large heat of vaporization). The confusion comes from the idea that temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of a system, and since the temperature remains constant, the average kinetic energy must also remain constant.
The extra energy required to cause a phase transition is actually potential energy. It is the energy required to overcome the bonds of nearest neighbors to the point that a phase transition can occur. So it really isn't a change in kinetic energy.
Answered by: Joe Larsen, Ph.D. Chemistry, Rockwell Science Center, Los Angeles, CA
'The strength and weakness of physicists is that we believe in what we can measure. And if we can't measure it, then we say it probably doesn't exist. And that closes us off to an enormous amount of phenomena that we may not be able to measure because they only happened once. For example, the Big Bang. ... That's one reason why they scoffed at higher dimensions for so many years. Now we realize that there's no alternative... '