How does one 'liquify' helium? How is it cooled enough to become a liquid?
Asked by: Shannon Range
To answer this question, I must start with the ideal gas equation:
states that Pressure(P) times Volume(V) equals the number of moles(n) times a constant(R) times
Temperature(T). The number of moles is just a measure of how many atoms or molecules you have
and is sometimes more convenient to use than mass. The constant is different depending on
the units you use for your pressure (atm, Torr, Pa). If you keep the number of moles
constant and remove n and R (you can do this with constants as long as you change the
equals sign to a proportion), the relation is then Pressure times Volume is proportional to
This means that as temperature decreases, the pressure and/or volume
decrease and vice-versa. According to this, you can either cool the helium to liquid or
decrease the volume. Decreasing the volume most of the time means applying pressure.
Answered by: Travis Rappleye, Chemistry Undergrad, San Jose State University
'The strength and weakness of physicists is that we believe in what we can measure. And if we can't measure it, then we say it probably doesn't exist. And that closes us off to an enormous amount of phenomena that we may not be able to measure because they only happened once. For example, the Big Bang. ... That's one reason why they scoffed at higher dimensions for so many years. Now we realize that there's no alternative... '