Why are there usually more neutrons than protons in a heavy element? Has Pauli's exclusions
principle got anything to do with it?
Asked by: Ciaran Mc Keown
The reason is that protons, being charged particles, repel each other. As you get
to heavier elements, with each new proton you add, there is a larger repulsive
force. The nuclear force is attractive and stronger than the electrostatic force,
but it has a finite range. So you need to add extra neutrons, which do not repel
each other, to add extra attractive force. You eventually reach a point where the
nucleus is just too big, and tends to decay via alpha decay or spontaneous fission.
To view this in quantum mechanical terms, the proton potential well is not as deep
as the neutron well due to the electrostatic repulsion. [Due to the Pauli
exclusion principle, you only get two particles per level (spin up and spin down)].
If one well is filled higher than the other, you tend to get a beta decay to even
them out. As the nuclei get larger, the neutron well gets deeper as compared to
the proton well and you get more neutrons than protons.
Answered by: Tom Swanson, Ph.D., Physicist, US Naval Observatory
'One thing I have learned in a long life: that all our science, measured against reality, is primitive and childlike - and yet it is the most precious thing we have.'